Muslims all over the world observe the annual fast during the daylight hours of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, in keeping with a divine commandment where Allah states, “O you who believe, fasting has been prescribed for you as it has been prescribed to those before you in order that you may attain taqwa” (Chapter 2, Verse 183).
From this verse, we deduce that:
Fasting is prescribed for believers.
Fasting has historically been an institution commonly practiced by various religious communities (for example, during Lent by Christians and on Yom Kippur by Jews).
Fasting is a means to attaining taqwa.
Taqwa implies guarding one’s self from evil and the imbibing of all elements of righteousness, thus reflecting the essence of piety. In its ethical dimension, it connotes moral rectitude (which is the fruit of God-oriented vigilance), and in its spiritual dimension it connotes purification of heart and mind.
Through fasting, one demonstrates the highest degree of obedience by willfully submitting to abstaining from lawful food, drink, and sexual relations from sunrise to sunset one month every year. This regimentation is an excellent means for spiritual and moral improvement.
Through fasting, the human being comes to grip with his carnal self, taming his physical appetites, subduing his greed and lust, and thus traversing a path which progressively elevates his consciousness from the physical to the moral and ultimately to the spiritual dimension of his being.
It is also by means of fasting that those who never have to hunger or thirst are (to some extent) made personally aware of the plight of the underprivileged, which thus evokes a degree of social consciousness. The aim of attaining taqwa is, in fact, that degree of ethical rectitude and moral elevation that flows from a heightened level of God-consciousness. It emanates from the spiritual rejuvenation inspired by the selfless act of fasting for Allah.
Q. Who should fast, and who does not have to?
Fasting during the month of Ramadan is obligatory for every mature (over the age of puberty), sane, and healthy Muslim.
Those not obliged to fast are the insane, mentally retarded, or chronically ill, and those under the age of puberty.
People undertaking a strenuous journey; women who are menstruating, experiencing post-natal discharges, or pregnant; people with a temporary illness; and those involved in extremely strenuous occupations (for example, a soldier in battle) may suspend their fasting. These people, however, have to make restitution (qada’) by fasting for the number of days equal to those missed, any time before the next Ramadan.
Q. What invalidates the fast, and what does not?
The following renders the fast void: intentional consumption of food or drink, sexual relations, deliberate vomiting, ejaculation of semen, or the beginning of menstruation or post-natal bleeding.
The following do not break the fast: eating or drinking out of forgetfulness (provided that one stops as soon as one becomes aware of the error); brushing the teeth; rinsing the mouth and nostrils with water; applying eye powder, face cream, hair oil, or perfume; swallowing unavoidable things such as saliva, dust, or smoke from the air; bathing; unintentional vomiting; having an injection or intravenous line that is solely medicinal, not nutritional; and embracing one’s spouse.